Other than the Freedmen's Bureau, were there any organizations or individuals who provided mutual aid or help to "African Americans" prior to 1960?

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The Freedmen’s Bureau was formed in 1865 towards the end of the civil was as a social and humanitarian assistance organization for freed slaves. It was run by the federal government under the auspices of the department of war and its mandate expired in 1872. However the organization was not the only one that assisted African Americans prior to 1960, many individuals and organizations played a part in the process. Some of which include but are not limited to:

  1. The NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  2. African American church organizations and other religious movements
  3. HBCUs- Historically Black Colleges and Universities
  4. United Negro College Fund
  5. The American Missionary Association
  6. Booker T. Washington
  7. Frederick Douglass 

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