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Oscar Wilde uses a myriad of literary techniques in "The Nightingale and the Rose" because the purpose of this specific literary work was to produce an allegorical prose which can relate the topic of altruistic and sacrificial love.
Some of the literary techniques that you can encounter in the short story are: Metaphor, since the blood of the nightingale being poured over the white rose symbolically colored the rose red. Another figure of speech is paradox, since the way that the nightingale was betrayed by the lover for whom he sacrificed his life. Another technique we see is obviously personification in the characteristics that the nightingale portrays, since it is given human and emotional qualities although it is a bird.
Hope it helps a bit!
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