According to Guns, Germs, and Steel, what was the date and the invention that made horses a viable military option?
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The answer to this question can be found in Chapter 4. There, Diamond tells us that the invention of yokes made horses a viable military option. The invention of yokes allowed horses to pull wagons and (more importantly for warfare) chariots. A battle chariot that could be pulled by horses was invented around 1800 BC (p. 91 in the paperback edition). This invention allowed the Hyksos to come in and conquer Egypt, which had no horses at that time.
Later, the invention of saddles and stirrups made horses even more effective in war, but they were not the invention that first made horses a viable military option.
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