The modern english translators have changed the word WINDRING as WANDERING calling it a misprint but I do not think so. the word that follows windring is brooks and brook is a water body and it will not wander beccause the meaning of the word wandering is aimless movement. every water body has a defininte direction and they dont wander and we see some rivers joing the same sea or oceans from the time immemorial. they may make a detour due to difference in gradient for they all move from the higher gradient to a lower gradient.
separate this word with a hyphen and see as WIND-RING That amounts to circular wind and circular wind is whirl wing. as the word that follows is a water body the meaning should be taken as WHIRL POOL. The people of the elizabethan era believed that the whirl pools are due to the mischief of the spirits and here in these lines the spirits are being addressed to make the mock marriage of mirinda and ferdinand grand and amusing'
Therefore will it be appropriate to the maning as whirl pools for the word winding?
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Please describe the version of the play you are referring to and quote the relevant section. Your lines 128-138 may not match other people's versions.
with reference to the observation at #2 kindly read the version of Roma Gill published by the oxford university press.
Thanks for the clarification. Some errant high school students ripped up my Oxford edition some years ago, which only proves that teenagers are as emotional about Shakespeare as ever. I understand their point of view. The Oxford edition is not my favourite version either.
The quotation below is from the Royal Shakespeare Company edition of 2007. When in doubt, I prefer its accuracy. In either case, brooks generally lack whirlpools, but they do wind and wander, and "wind ring" as two separate words does not scan.
But who knows? Unless we find another original copy, we will have to settle for ambiguity.
Juno and Ceres whisper, and send Iris on employment.
Iris. You nymphs, called Naiads, of the windring brooks,
With your sedged crowns and ever-harmless locks,
Leave your crisp channels, and on this green land
Answer your summons: Juno does command.
Come, temperate nymphs, and help to celebrate
A contract of true love: be not too late.
ElizabethanEra.org.uk defines "windring" as "winding." Now, as we all know, Shakespeare was famous for (and sometimes infamous for) plays on words in which one word might conjure up two or three meanings. In keeping with your excellent information on the connection between "wind ring" and whirlpools and between whirlpools and spirits, it seems Shakespearean convention may very well come down of the side of a word play calling up the association you describe. After all, Ariel is serving Prospero and where Ariel is, there spirits are and where spirits are, there mischief is.
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