How is management both an art and a science?
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Management is a science because there is a great deal of method involved in proper management. For a manager to understand the Psychological, Sociological and Economical factors in business he/she would need to be scientific minded. For the manager to be successful they would also need to be a creative thinker, which is what connects management to art. A good manager is able to quickly think about problem resolution in all the areas of science to produce a positive outcome from their decision. Without creativity this would be virtualy impossible.
Good luck in Graduate school.
I agree with bmaruffi that business is indeed a science, particularly when we look at the systems and methodology involved with the financial management of a business, the legal aspects of starting, running a business, HR compliances, technology infrastructures, intranet security, etc.
Business is an art because of the unknown elements involved: particularly people's (customers and employees) behavior. The art of managing a successful business depends heavily on the creative and strategic abilities of the leadership along with their "intuitive" understanding of people and trends.
Three of my mentors and experts are cited below I would also recommend reading Good to Great and the Awakening the Entrepreneur Within.
Chip Connelly (Joire de Vivre Hospitality) is another incredible business leader who balances the science and art of business seamlessly.
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Management displays characteristics of science as well as an art. Therefore management is an art as well as sciences. Like any discipline of science, management also has a recognized body of knowledge and methods to guide management decisions and actions. At the same time managers have to frequently also rely on their personal skills and judgment, which are more like art of management rather than science.
Management is both an art and a science because it relies on both aspects: Science in the form of data and analysis of data for making correct choices; and, Art in the form of luck and ability to get along with people in order to maximize shared authority and responsibility.
Management involves being able to see the big picture, to plan ahed to the future, to put out fires as they happen, and to work with people. All of that requires both skill and charisma. In other words, a manager who does not use both art and science will not be successful. The job involves finesse and attention to detail.
Management includes some emotional elements, which means that it cannot be completely scientific. Managers always manage people, never machines. This is the "art" part of management.
Planning, implementation, and specific goals all also make a big part of successful management. Numbers play in to any business too. These are the scientific elements of management.
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