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The first two paragraphs in chapter 4 of Lord of the Flies describes how the boys' day is related to the sun, the heat and the general climate of the island. The rhythm that Golding refers to is the rhythm of the day and how the boys behave at various times of the day.
"They accepted the pleasures of morning, the bright sun, the whelming sea and sweet air, as a time when play was good and life so full that hope was not necessary and therefore forgotten." Here, Golding is talking about dawn, when the sun first comes up. At this time of the day, all is new, and the boys are not worried about what the day will bring.
When the sun is high in the sky at noon, the heat is too much for the boys and they will rest in the shade and take naps. Due to the position of the sun and the resulting heat, however, the boys would see things that weren't really there. "Piggy discounted all this learnedly as a 'mirage';...they grew accustomed to these mysteries and ignored them..." Piggy's intellect plays a role in keeping the boys calm as he convinces them not to believe what they see.
Once the sun sets and "the horizon became level and blue and clipped as the sun declined," the boys are happy that it is cooler but become restless as they are concerned what will happen once darkness sets in.
The boys' "northern European tradition of work, play and food" continues, but has been adapted to fit their new surroundings.
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