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- Subject: the who or what of the sentence. Example: John threw the ball to Jane.
- Verb: the action or state of being of a sentence. Example: John threw the ball to Jane. -or- John is tall.
- Object: must be a noun, cannot be the subject of the sentence - can either be direct, indirect, or an object of the preposition. Example: John threw the ball to Jane. ball = direct object; Jane = object of preposition.
- Direct object: must be a noun and can only be present in a sentence with action verbs because it receives the action of the verb. Example from above: John threw what? (Answer, the ball.)
- Indirect object: must be a noun (usually a person) and can only be present in a sentence which also contains a direct object because this object receives the direct object. Examples: John threw Jane the ball. -or- John brought Jane some cookies. Jane = indirect object; ball and cookies = direct objects.
- Noun: person, place, thing, idea. Examples: John, Washington, ball, love.
- Noun phrase: a phrase is a group of words that does not contain a subject or a verb. A noun phrase is a group of words containing a noun (duh) and any modifiers - adjectives. Example: John, a ruggedly handsome, tall, and confident man, wooed Jane.
- Complement: any word or phrase that gives a subject, object, or verb more completion. Examples: John is tall. Tall = subject complement. John made Jane happy. Happy = object complement. John gave Jane all his money. Jane and money = verb complements.
- Adjective: describes (or modifies, makes more specific) a noun. Examples: I would like a million dollars, pink roses, and that fabulous house.
- Adverb: describes (or modifies) a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Examples: John runs really quickly. She always eats lunch at noon. The dog's hair is too long.
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