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There is some variability in Islamic architecture, over time and country to country because there is heterogeneity even within a culture. I am going to give you four elements that I see, and I have provided a link with some great photographs that might help you identify even more.
The element I want to discuss first is the decorative element of Islamic architecture because this element reflects a religious principle of the religion. The beauty of decoration in this architecture is in the repetition of intricate geometric elements because there must be no decoration or statuary that depicts Allah or Mohammad or any other religious figure. While churches might have statues of various religious figures and geometric decorations, this is forbidden in Islam.
The second element is the use of the dome, also common in Jewish and Eastern Orthodox buildings, which, of course, have their roots in the East.
A third element is the wide open space within the mosque, a space needed for worship. In Western religions, people are mostly seated on chairs as they worship, but in Islam, one kneels, so there is a need for this open and bare space. This contributes greatly to the beauty of the mosque.
Columns and arches also figure prominently in Islamic architecture. I would guess that these predate the columns of Rome and Greece, but I do not know whether the idea was borrowed from the Arab world. I am going to have to do some of my own research to find out.
Islamic architecture is beautiful and awe-inspiring, two features that make it perfect to consider God, by no matter what name we call a deity.
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