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The researchers found both nature and nurture factors in the development of temperament. Citing a study among Finnish children, the observe that certain genetic combinations are more likely to experience issues in temperament given a negative environment in the home. Even with these genetic combinations present, children who had a positive, nurturing environment in the home were not likely to develop temperament issues. Moreover, children without certain genotypes were less likely than those who had them to develop temperamental disorders given a negative environment in the home. So both genetic and environmental factors contribute to temperament, and they often interact to intensify the effect of the other.
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