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Breathing is controlled by cerebral cortex, the same area of the brain that controls the muscles movements.
The increased amounts of CO_2 increase the respiratory rate to remove the surplus of CO_2. The decreased amounts of oxygen levels also increase the respiratory rate.
Since the surplus of CO_2 amounts could lead to respiratory acidosis hence, the lungs compensate the decreased blood pH through increased respiratory rates, hyperventilation.
The inreased levels of alcohol or sedatives can also influence the respiratory rate, leading to respiratory arrest.
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