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Of course, it all depends on what you said about transportation in India. Did you look at modes of transportation? Issues in transportation? Your conclusion should have a brief retelling of your thesis (not verbatim) and it should also give a summary of how each of your points backs up your thesis. You can also mention how you arrived at this thesis--what are the broader implications of your paper? Do transportation issues in India resemble transportation issues in other congested areas, i.e. America?
Your conclusion should make the reader aware that he/she has reached the end of your paper. There is no need to write "in conclusion" to start the paragraph, because everyone can see that the paper is ending--these words are proper for a speech, but not a paper. Do not bring in new material for your conclusion, but briefly restate your argument and the points of how you made your argument. This is your last chance to make an impression on the reader.
According to Edward P. Bailey and Philip A. Powell's The Practical Writer, the conclusion should do two things:
- It reminds the reader of the main point of your essay.
- It give the reader a sense of finality.
The conclusion of an essay is no more than a rewording of the thesis as a means of "wrapping up" the essay and reminding the reader of the purpose for which the essay has been written. Therefore, it will reiterate the general statement and the three (usually) opinions/arguments that make up this general statement. With the topic of transportation in India, you have probably discussed the development of this transportation and the history that is attached to this transportation which is tied to India's colonization and advancement into the nineteenth century. In a sense, the conclusion demonstrates to the reader that you have, indeed, proved his/her statement and main points, or arguments about India's transportation.
In addition, a conclusion should also have a "clincher." This gives the conclusion a sense of finality. Again, the clincher takes the reader back to the introductory paragraph in which you have provided a "hook" or "motivator" (Bailey & Powell), an observation or quotation relative to the topic. And, as mentioned in the previous post, the clincher takes the reader "to a broader vision," or to an extension of thought from the points in the essay. For instance, the clincher could make a statement that looks to India's future with its advancements in transportation.
Source: Bailey, Edward P. and Powell, Philip A. The Practical Writer. Boston: Thomson-Heilne, 2003. Print.
I think that much of this is going to be contingent on what you have produced so far. In general, a conclusion can be seen to accomplish one of two purposes. Good conclusions can accomplish both ends. The first is a summary of what had been proven thus far. This does not mean to rehash what already has been said, but rather recap in a more specific manner how the thesis was proven or how the points were brought out throughout the work/ project. The second purpose of a conclusion, in my mind, is to evoke the idea of why what has been argued has broader implications for the future. It becomes essential for conclusions to be able to actually help to raise more wonderment and questioning in the mind of the reader as to why the topic presented has much more relevance than originally thought and even beyond this page. This will require you to review what you have argued in transportation in India, how the points made will connect to a broader vision of society, as well as why what has been said has meaning and purpose.
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