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Before the Industrial Revolution, men tended to work in their own homes. This was the system in which (for example) shoes would be made by a skilled cobbler working in a shop that was part of his own home. He might do his work with the help of apprentices and assistants who lived there as well. This was a very small-scale and personal kind of work with personal ties between master craftsmen and their assistants. The assistants would become masters in their own rights.
With the Industrial Revolution, this changed. Now, shoes would be made in factories by relatively unskilled workers who had no close relationship with the bosses and who would not progress to become master craftsmen. This caused a great deal of tension between employers and employees. It was a new sort of relationship. These tensions led to the rise of socialism.
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