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A good way to start out is to make students communicate without speaking. Choose two volunteer students. Give one of them a message to relay in any way without the spoken word (much like charades), and time their efforts until the message is received by the other. Have the students notice how long it took to be understood, if it was. Mention that conversation is more than just the spoken word. It includes tone of voice, expression, volume of the message, emphasis on certain words, body language etc. You might do more exercises where students use a simple message and have it have more than one message being delivered. Ex.- There's a bear behind you. It could be whispered, shouted, different emphasis on certain words that changes the meaning, perhaps a teddy bear used as a prop. Students like doing improv exercises like this. After the fun part comes the drudgery- a grammar text showing punctuation. Then a fun writing assignment could make those dry rules more interesting such as the GEICO gecko riding the bus the first day of school or getting around in the halls.
Regarding conversational exercises in a foreign language--the words conversational and intermediate level suggest this may be so--,a good way to get students started (or restarted) is to engage have them speak about their own interests, activities, etc. Pairing students together has been effective for me, personally, since two or three do not do the work for a lazy one, for instance. When there are only two students, one asks questions and the other responds and vice versa.
Pairing a strong student with a weaker or reluctant one also encourages the weak/reluctant student to engage in conversation. Always peers are less threatening as tutors/teachers than the real one!
On the intermediate level, creating situation cards and passing them to a group of three works sometimes. For instance, two students are friends in a cafe and the third is the waiter/waitress; two people are tourists and the third is the concierge at the hotel, etc.
When trying to get the students to talk with the teacher, the instructor can allow them to use English for the words that they do not know. That is, the student must try to say most of his/her thoughts in the target language, but may insert English for a few words/phrases. Often students are not secure enough to say everything in the language, so they just say nothing.
I think your question is not clear. How to teach conversation or how to teach foreign language???If you are considering a foreign language the following ideas will be useful.
learning through listening:
1)Get them to listen the natural conversation of the native speaker and observe the use of words and antonation.
2)Make the listening habit intense.
3)Practice the similar things in the class with the same way as the native speaker.
refer the following website
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