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Chromatography technique is used to separate substances in a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid"mobile phase" and then it is carried through a structure "stationary phase". The different parts of the mixture travel at different speeds and this causes them to separate. Chromatography paper is used for the stationary phase. This process was developed in the l940's-50's by Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge. Their work allowed for the development of methods including paper, gas and high performance liquid chromatography. For analyzing carbohydrates in a solution, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography are used. They are separated on the basis of their differential absorption characteristics. This occurs due to differences in polarites, partition coefficients or sizes. HPLC is used for its rapid and precise measurements. Carbohydrates can also be separated by electrophoresis, once they have first been electrically charged by reacation with borates. This solution of carbohydrates is applied to a gel and as an electrical current is applied, they separate based on size. The smaller carbohydrates or monosaccharides will move faster in an electrical field.
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