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Insulin is a proteinaceous hormone, consisting of 51 amino acid residues in the form of two linked peptide chains of 21 and 30 amino acids respectively with a molecular weight of 6000. The insulin is of great importance in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
Deficiency of insulin leads to excess sugar in the blood which is excreted in the urine.In this disease, known as diabetes mellitus meaning "a running through of sweet urine," much urine is excreted and the individual loses weight. As the diabetic can no more utilize the rich energy source of his high blood sugar, he shifts from carbohydrate metabolism to fat metabolism for energy.
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