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In the past, a great deal of medical research was done using males as subjects, and treatments for males and females were predicated upon that research. Probably the best example of this is the research done on heart attacks. Women's heart attacks often have gone undiagnosed because no one had any awareness that the symptomology varied. This has cost countless female lives. The same is probably true for treatment of heart attacks, although I am not well-versed in the studies on this. There is no question that research on males cannot "stand in" for research on females for many kinds of diseases and conditions, and we now have a much greater awareness of this. Women have different dominating hormones and many other differences that need to be accounted for in research, diagnosis, and treatment. We are the same species, but the differences are significant enough for us to attend to them properly.
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