How does Orwell compare the farm under Napoleon's leadership to its exploited state under Farmer Jones' rule?  

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Ashley Kannan | Middle School Teacher | (Level 3) Distinguished Educator

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I would say that one of the major comparisons that Orwell makes between the styles of leadership under Napoleon and Farmer Jones lies in how the former uses the latter.  Orwell constructs a setting where Farmer Jones is used as the constant "boogey man" by the Pigs.  Squealer employs the vision or notion of Farmer Jones as the representation of all that is evil and wrong in the world.  In doing so, he guarantees that the animals cannot question the world around them.  Farmer Jones is associated with oppression, unfairness, and exploitation.  In this, Napoleon and the Pig leadership ensures that he will never be forgotten.  While they are doing this, they are mimicking the same repressive tendencies of Farmer Jones.  The animals' lives shows no real sign of improvement as the leadership of the Pigs takes hold.  Each time an animal raises the slightest hint of questioning, they are accused of wanting to bring back Farmer Jones and the immediate demonizing of Farmer Jones begins.  In this, Orwell is making the point that regimes and political orders benefit from blaming their predecessors while they might be doing the exact same thing in order to consolidate their own base of power.

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