How do you know if there is only 1 mol of CO3 for CaCO3?

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We can determine the number of moles of an ion based on their molecular formula. Let me show you some similar examples:

1 mole of NaCl has 1 mole of Na+ and 1 mole of Cl-

1 mole of Na2SO4 there are 2 moles of Na+ and 1 mole of SO4^2-

So if we try to relate this with your compound, we can see that there are 1 mole of CO3^2- and 1 mole of Ca2+.

in short, in 1 mole of CaCO3, there is 1 mole CO3^2-

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