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Each of these leaders pursued a different strategy, but it is fair to say that they shared a conviction that the nonviolent civil disobedience advocated by Martin Luther King, Jr., and his perceived focus on political rights, was insufficient for the needs of African Americans. Additionally, all advocated community efforts, attempting to strengthen black institutions at the local level, especially in urban areas. As a member and a leader of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X had advocated both moral and economic reform, as well as aggressively pushing for black rights, as he put it, "by any means necessary." Both Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown had their roots in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and initially advocated integration. However, both became disillusioned with the movement, and began to push for black nationalism, and even armed action against white hegemony. It was Carmichael who popularized the phrase "Black Power." Huey Newton was the leader of the Black Panthers, the leftist organization that both Carmichael and Brown joined or had ties to. Newton also believed in armed self-defense, and articulated a revolutionary ideology. While Martin Luther King was more radical than he is often credited with being, especially on issues of economic equality, these men favored an approach more politically radical, and less given to pluralism and compromise, than did King.
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