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Most of these countries achieved independence simply by being granted it by their former colonial rulers. There were some, such as Angola, that fought for independence. But more of them were like Zimbabwe which was simply granted independence by Britain.
Mozambique, like Angola, was also involved in a bloody struggle against Portugal for independence. Also like Angola, they received direct military aid from Cuba. Even the relatively peaceful independence movements, like in Ghana and Kenya, also saw rioting and some violence. In Zimbabwe, a white-led government (known then as Rhodesia)broke away from Britain, resulting in fighting with African revolutionaries. One very interesting exception to colonial patterns was Liberia, founded in the mid-nineteenth century by freed slaves who had come there with the help of the American Colonization Society.
Skilled speakers such as Kwame Nkrumah in the Gold Coast, Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya, and Léopold Senghor in Sengal led independence movements in their countries. Such political pressure was enough to win independece in the British colonies that became Nigeria and Ghana, and in France's many Western African colonies.
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