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Germination of seeds that are dormant is dependent on several factors. These are specific conditions of oxygen, water, temperature and possibly light or lack of it. Seeds are dry and must take in water to help initiate growth and allow metabolic processes to occur. Oxygen is needed for respiration, which allows the embryo plant inside the seed, to obtain energy from the stored food inside the cotyledons(seed leaves). Temperature range affects seed germination. Too hot or too cold will inhibit germination of seeds. Each plant is adapted to its own temperature conditions for germination. Some seeds are fire dependent for germination as the heat cracks their seed coat. Sometimes, exposure to cold temperatures breaks a seed's dormancy. Usually light is not a factor although it can be in very dark forests, where a bit of light is necessary for the growth of a seed.
The factors that influence seed germination:
Abiotic or Biotic factors can affect seed germination:
Abiotic factors are:
1) Temperature is one of the essential factors. The rate of seed germination is directly proportional to the temperature up to a limit.
2) Moisture or water is very important for seed germination.
3) Soil is not required by the seeds initially, but seedlings require mineral elements for their further growth.
4) Light is essential for seeds to germinate, while in some seeds germination is hindered by light.
B) Biotic factors are:
1 ) Viability of the seeds: After the seeds are produced they remain viable i.e. they have potential to germinate up to certain period that varies from plant to plant or seed to seed.
2) Dormancy period is a period after resting periods of seed during which they are ready to germinate.
the main factors needed for germination are
- type of soil ( conditionally)
if these are supplied effectively the seed will germinate
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