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Name calling is a technique used by propagandists in order to discredit someone, as well as to incite fear and prejudice against an adversary, thus bringing about conclusions and actions against the target of the name calling.
In George Orwell's Animal Farm, in Chapter 1, Old Major tells the animals,
"Man is the only real enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever."
Later, in Chapter 3,the pigs refer to human beings as "worthless parasitical human beings."
Then, in Chapter 6 after Napoleon has usurped power and made the animals work harder and discontinued the Sunday meetings, his propagandist, Squealer, addresses the animals and places blame upon Snowball, whom Napoleon has run off from the farm. He blames the animals’ confusion in the matter of the new policies on lies circulated by Snowball. And, addressing the animals, Squealer uses name-calling,
..."Do you know the enemy who has come in the night and overthrown our windmill? SNOWBALL! ...in malignity, thinking to set back our plans and avenge himself for his ignominious expulsion, this traitor has himself crept her under cover of night and destroyed our work of nearly a year...."
Of course, as Napoleon becomes more despotic, as in Chapter 8, he justifies his actions of some of the animals who dissent murdered as "killing the traitors."
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