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a) utopial/ dystopia
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A) Utopia literally means "no place" and it describes a society so perfect and ideal that it could probably not exist, therefore "no place." Utopian novels include Brave New World, 1984, Herland and Ecotopia.
B) There is a fine line between Utopia and Dystopia. Often "utopian novels" propose a society who's aim was utopian but soon became corrupted and became Dystopian. Animal Farm is such an example. The animals take over the farm in a Marxist revolutionary style, but eventually a select few of the animals (namely Napoleon) become as corrupt as the farmers who ran the farms. So, utopia is an ideal place and dystopia is a society marked by oppression, war, poverty, etc.
C) Eugenics is selective breeding or regulated breeding in order to better the human species: improving human genetic (eugenics) qualities. Eugenics is sometimes associated with Darwinism and projects like The Human Genome Project, which when used for purposes of understanding genetics can help treat disease. But eugenics has mostly been associated with Nazism and other philosophies which based eugenics not on bettering the human genetic qualities but on immoral premises like racial supremacy and purity. A novel like Brave New World illustrates this kind of eugenics as an immoral practice by pre-natally genetically engineering people into classes.
Brave New World is also an example of a society which attempted to be utopian and ended up as a dystopia.
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