Explain why in the reaction of vinegar and baking soda, the percent yield was not at 100%.
Explain all possible causes for error such as side reactions or anything that could lead to the yield not being 100%.
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Sodium bicarbonate and vinegar react to form sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide:
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH => CH3COO-Na+ + H2O + CO2The percent yield of this reaction (or any reaction, for that matter) is given by the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield, times 100%, or: [ (actual yield) / (theoretical yield) ] * 100% = percent yield Presumably, you are calculating the percent yield of carbon dioxide, and that, being a gas, introduces the first difficulty in the experiment -- capturing ALL of the gas produced in the reaction is difficult, because gases are difficult to handle, and tend to evaporate away into the atmosphere. Any amount less than the theoretical yield of CO2 will give you less than a 100 percent yield.
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