Explain Mechanisms of signal Transduction?

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giorgiana1976 | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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Coupling Protein  have their role in the mechanism of biological signal transduction. Class water-soluble hormones hormones(peptides,catecholamines) do not enter the cells, but interacts with membrane receptors. Fixing the hormone on the receptor activates a transducer that converts the external signal (first messenger) in one intracellular (second messenger). Second messenger acts within the cell initiating events leading to activation or inactivation of enzymes, secretion, contraction, synthesis of new proteins.
The number of second messengers is small: AMPc, cGMP, diacil glycerol, inositol phosphates, calmodulin. Paracrine mediator substances is AMPc (glucagon, catecholamines, parathyroid hormone, TSH, gonadotrophins, ACTH). The hormone action is internal mediated by transducers system   of external messages in intracellular messages. Transducer systems are cytoplasmic membrane receptors, nuclear.

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vinn | College Teacher | eNotes Newbie

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At cellular level, signal transduction includes the movement of signals from outside the

cell to inside. This transport of signal can be of simple which include the ion channel

receptors to the most complex level that are associated with the coupling of ligandreceptor

interactions which follows many intracellular happenings.

Extracellular signaling by means of secreted molecules can be of three types in case of

animals. This classification depends upon the distance between the cells over which a

signal can act.

1) Endocrine signaling:

In this type of signaling, hormones are the signaling molecules. Inside the cells of

endocrinal organs like pancreas and liver, these hormones are synthesized. The

hormones are transported to the target cell through the blood stream, and are capable of

acting on a target cell which is far from their site of synthesis.

2) Paracrine signaling:

In contrast to the endocrine signaling, paracrine signaling is effective only in the target

cells which are nearer to the signaling cell. Neurotransmitters are the best example for

such types of signaling molecules in which the signal is transmitted from one nerve cell

to the adjacent nerve cell in the nervous tissue.

3) Autocrine signaling:

Autocrine signaling is another specific type in which the cell gives response to the

signaling molecules produced on its own. Most of the growth factors come under this


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