Use examples to explain open and closed environments in a management information system (M.I.S).
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A closed system is self-contained and does not exchange data with any outside system, in MIS an example of a closed system would be the research and development department. It many companies this specific department is organized in a way that insulates it from other department and the rest of the company. This may be done due to a number of factors but the primary reason is to prevent the theft or the leaking of intellectual property secrets.
An open system on the other hand openly communicates with its surrounding environment and exchanges data and information. An example of an open system would be the human resource department of an organization; the HR department needs to be dynamic, flexible and open in order to function effectively.
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