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Multicultural counselling is a metatheoretical approach that recognises that all helping methods that ultimately exist within a cultural context. It includes ethnographic and demographic variables, status, education, economy as well as formal and informal affiliations.
The three factor model of multicultural counselling for consumers with disabilities is a conceptual framework and not a comprehensive theory of multicultural counseling.
It requires the counselors to consider
a) where the consumer is, developmentally (stage of development)
b) where the consumer is, in terms of cultural identification (cultural identity)
c) how the consumer defines optimal adjustment to the impairment (adjustment to disability)
The three factor model has certain weaknesses. Some of them are listed below.
One is that, although most counseling sessions lead to multicultural sensitivity, very few provide multicultural proficiency.
The skills subscale is assessed mostly while awareness dimension is rarely dealt with.
Also, the three factor model is not always fully efficient in a complete consumer self assessment in multicultural scales.
One weakness found by Columbia University researchers is that the "self-report multicultural scales" that measure (1) attitudes and beliefs, (2) knowledge and (3) skills do not fully account for client self-assessment in self-report multicultural scales. They found that data supported a two-factor structure of self assessment instead: (1) skills and (2) attitudes and beliefs, with attitudes and beliefs being virtually equivalent terms (Constantine MG, Gloria AM, Ladany N.).
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