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The process of breaking up of rocks by changes in weather phenomena such as temperature, moisture and precipitation is called weathering.Bare rock surfaces are exposed to various types of physical, chemical and biological processes which lead to physical and chemical disruption of their components. Physical processes of weathering include action of water, temperature, glaciers, gravity etc., which cause weathering of rocks through processes as wetting-drying, heating-cooling, freezing, glaciation, solution and sand blast etc.
The chemical processes of weathering include hydration, hydrolysis, oxidation-reduction, carbonation, chelation etc., which are due to chemical composition of rocks, chemicals in the atmosphere, as well as those produced as a result of living organisms, such as lichens, fungi, bacteria, blue-green algae, bryophytes etc.
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