Describe how blood calcium levels are maintained, including the hormones involved and how they are regulated.
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Blood calcium levels are maintained at appropriate levels by the parathyroid hormones, vitamin D and a hormone known as calcitonin.
The parathyroid hormones and vitamin D are responsible for the increase of calcium levels in the blood. These hormones acting directly and by regulating the Vitamin D levels in the blood aid in calcium absorption in the small intestine, prevent loss of calcium from the body through the kidneys and regulate the excretion of phosphate in the body as an increase in phosphates leads to a fall in calcium levels
Calcitonin on the other hand is responsible for reducing calcium levels by increasing the outflow of calcium from the body through the kidneys and preventing calcium from entering the body from the bones.
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