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The United Kingdom is a Constitutional Monarchy with a Parliamentary form of government.
1. The head of the government, The Prime Minister, is chosen by the lead party of the legislature and is part of the legislature. If the lead party does not have a majority in the legislature, then a coalition of parties comes together and chooses The Prime Minister.
2. The Prime Minister can dismiss the legislature and call for new elections.
3. It is easier to pass legislation, as the executive is part of the legislature and usually has a majority of the legislature already.
The United States is a Presidential form of Government.
1. The head of the government, The President, is chosen by the electoral college, who is chosen by popular vote by the people.
2. The power of the executive is in one person.
3. There is usually more stability, as governmental emergencies do not need a dissolution of the government.
In a parliamentary system of government, as happens in the United Kingdom, the legislative and executive components are the same. The prime minister is the head of the executive branch and is a part of the legislative branch. He/she performs his/her duties with the help of a council of ministers, all of whom are members of the legislature. The prime minister is elected by the elected representatives and not directly by the citizens. The legislature can impeach the prime minister or bring a no-confidence motion. The prime minister can resign and force a re-election if no other party is in a condition to form government.
In a presidential system, as in the United States, the legislative and executive components are separate. The president is the head of the state and head of the executive branch and has supreme authority. The president carries out his responsibilities through a set of hand-picked secretaries or ministers, who are not the members of the legislature and serve at his pleasure and can be dismissed whenever the president deems fit. The president and his council do not necessarily have to answer to the legislature and the president can veto any decision of the legislative branch.
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