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How and why did the major aspects of the roman catholic reformation compare and contrast with those of the Protestant Reformation and with what results?
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The genesis of the Catholic counter reformation was seated in the recognition within the Catholic Church that there were problems at hand,including fallacy within the papacy--an idea radically at odds with the doctrine of an infallible Pope. One difference between the Protestant and Catholic reformations is that while Protestantism liberated the clergy, Catholicism attempted to restore the strict rules and discipline of the various orders of clergy.
The Catholic "Counter Reformation" differed from the Protestant "Reformation" most importantly, perhaps, because Protestantism challenged many of the very central doctrines of the Catholic Church, such as the role of the Pope and the understanding of the eucharist. The Protestant Reformation was a very radical break from Catholicism; the Counter Reformation was an effort indeed to reform the Catholic church, not to challenge it in any truly fundamental ways.
The Catholic Reformation, often called the Counter Reformation, was a direct response to the Protestant Reformation. It sought to correct many of the abuses of church practices which had led to the Protestant Reformation, specifically the sale of indulgences, and also instituted an effort to combat Protestantism through education. The Catholic Reformation saw the founding of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, by St. Ignatius Loyola; who used education to support church teaching. As a church council, the Council of Trent had the authority to overrule the Pope on matters of Church doctrine. Rather than do so, it reaffirmed the Pope's authority as the vicar of Christ on earth.
Yes, the central difference between these two Reformations is the way that the Catholic church, having been shaken by the Protestant Reformation, and the way that it challenged so many key creeds, sought to reaffirm and strengthen its beliefs through the Reformation. Both sought to accomplish change, but the Catholic Reformation was based around revitalising the Catholic Church, rather than pulling it apart.
The Catholic Reformation was different from the Protestant Reformation in at least one very basic way. The Catholic Reformation reaffirmed the correctness of their doctrines. So, from a theological perspective, they did not change. Also they anathematized Protestant teachings at the Council of Trent. So, in no way did Catholics protest. Rather, they reaffirmed their traditional positions. Protestants, on the other hand, protested abuses of the church and doctrinal impurities.
The Catholic Reformation was, like the Protestant Reformation started out to be, a movement to reform the Church. It tried, among other things, to make sure that people got better pastoral care from their priests. This was the sort of thing that Luther had started out being concerned with. However, the Catholic Reformation was also about reasserting the basic correctness of Catholic doctrine, not with challenging it.
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