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Both the United States and Mexico have federal governments that are democratically elected and which have separation of powers. Both have an executive, a bicameral legislature, and a judicial branch.
The most important difference between the two is in how their officials are elected and how long they can stay in office. In all parts of the Mexican government, there are term limits. Presidents can serve only one six-year term. Members of Congress cannot serve consecutive terms. Members of the Supreme Court get one 15-year term. In addition, Mexico has a hybrid system for electing its members of Congress. Some are elected in "first past the post" elections in their districts. But some are elected by proportional representation. The US has no proportional representation at the national level.
There are similarities and differences between the US government and Mexico’s government. Both the United States and Mexico’s governments are based on a constitution. The US has had two plans of government while Mexico has had several constitutions, with the most recent one approved in 1917. Both countries have states; the US has 50 states, while Mexico has 31. Both countries are an example of a federal republic. The leader of each country is called a President. The President appoints a Cabinet. Both countries have three branches of government. Political parties exist in both countries.
There are some differences between the United States's government and Mexico’s government. In the US, the Cabinet is appointed by the President and then approved by the Senate. In Mexico, the President appoints the Cabinet without needing the approval of the Senate for all appointees. The US President may serve two terms of four years each. In Mexico, the President serves one term of six years. In Mexico, the President is elected by the popular vote, while the Electoral College elects the President in the United States.
As indicated above, both governments have a number of similarities and differences. For one, both are divided into three branches; executive, legislative and judicial. Even though these branches are independent, they have a degree of influence in the activities of the other branches. Both governments have a bicameral Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives for the US and a Chamber of Deputies for Mexico. In both governments, the Supreme Court is the highest court operating in the judicial system and justices are appointed to it by the president upon Senate approval.
With regards to differences, a president in the US can only serve for a maximum of two terms each lasting for four years. In Mexico however, a president can only serve for one term lasting six years. In terms of administrative divisions, whereas Mexico has 31 states, the US consists of 50 states. Whereas the president in Mexico can appoint the members of his cabinet without the Senate’s approval except for the case of the attorney general, Head of the Bank of Mexico and senior treasury officials, in the US, all presidential cabinet appointments are pegged on the Senate’s approval. Also, while the president is elected through a popular vote in Mexico, in the US, the president is elected by a college of representatives from each state.
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