Compare and contrast the French and Haitian revolutions...
immediate and long range causes and impact, and any other relevant comparisons, people, events..etc.
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The French Revolution, which preceded the Haitian revolution, began because of two reasons: social and political oppression, whereas the Haitian revolution was ignited by only social oppression, although political oppression was later addressed. In France, the third estate, which was composed of the merchants, lawyers, and peasants, wanted a voice in government. Armed with pitchforks, the peasantry marched on the Bastille. This revolt began with an attack of a garrison for political prisoners and ended with a blood bath of hundreds of aristocracy being guillotined, followed by a period known as the Reign of Terror.
Similarly, the Haitian revolution was a bloody revolt of slaves against their owners. The French were slaughtered mercilessly, the plantations were burned. However, a fifty-year old slave, Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture was the only one who perceived the political benefits for his people. For, he perceived a way for the slaves to become free. At the time, there were three European powers vying for Haiti: the French, the English, and the Spanish. So, L'Ouverture, who realized that the slaves were the key to keeping the island, played these powers off each other. Finally, he promised the French that he and his troops would help them fight England if the slaves were freed. It was an offer that the French could not refuse since they could not rely on France's providing help. After the defeat of the English, Toussaint L'Ouverture became Consul, ending a revolution peacefully.
Unlike Robespierre and the others, or Napoleon, as Consul, L'Ouverture treated all alike, making no distinctions between blacks and whites. He developed commerce, organizing schools and utilizing all talents in the nation. But, Napoleon Bonaparte was his nemesis. After Toussaint L'Ouverture had retired, Bonaparte had him arrested in 1803 because he said slavery was never abolished.
After the death of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the revolution was perpetuated by Jean-Jacques Dessalines. It was a horrifying struggle with Leclerc slaughtering any black that was found. Dessaline retaliated by saying that any atrocity committed against his men would be done to Leclerc's men, ordering the summary execution of any European men. This action certainly parallels the slaughter of the aristocracy in the French Revolution. Eventually, of course, Haiti obtained its liberty from France and became a republic, as well.
In France, the blood bath of the Revolution finally gave way to the dictatorial Napoleon, who, in turn, was unseated by the monarchy and then the republic was again restored.
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