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The concept of theory X and theory Y was first proposed by Douglas McGregor in his book Human Side of Enterprise as a alternative sets assumptions about behavior and nature of people at work. McGregor stated that way many managers deal with their subordinates suggests a set of underlying assumptions. He labeled these assumptions, which he believed to be incorrect assumptions as "Theory X'. IN place of these assumptions he proposes an alternate correct set of assumptions which he called 'Theory Y'.
Using the terminology of McGregor, William Ouchi suggested another set of assumptions called 'Theory Z' which he believed to be more appropriate for applying Japanese style of management.
The assumptions of these theories are described below.
- Humans inherently dislike working and try to avoid work.
- Because people dislike work, they have to be made to work by putting pressure and controlling their activities closely.
- Average people prefers to be directed by others.
- Average people avoid taking responsibility.
- Average people are unambitious and prefer security at work
- Work is an activity as natural to people as play and rest.
- When suitably motivated people are self directed to achieve organizational objectives.
- Commitment of employees can be obtained by ensuring job satisfaction for them
- People learn to accept responsibility and under suitable conditions actively seek responsibility.
- People are imaginative and creative.
- Employees want to build cooperative relationships with their employees, superiors, colleagues and juniors
- People require support in form job security and facilities for developing multiple skills essential for improving performance.
- People value their family life, culture,traditions and institutions as much as they value their material gains.
- People have well developed sense of dedication, moral obligation and self discipline.
- They can make good collective decisions through consensus.
thx 4 answering my question
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