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Coffee houses (or cafés) have a long history of serving as the hub of social interaction, political discussions, literary workshops, and overall entertainment. Thus, I would answer "D" to your question.
One of the first coffee houses is said to have opened in 1530 in Damascus; these shops later became a phenomenon all across Europe when coffee arrived there in the 1600s, offering a place for people to gather with their friends and colleagues over a hot drink and some rousing, intellectual conversation. These communal areas allowed for the critical spread of information, the exchange of business ideas, and general philosophizing; a coffee house was even home to the birthing of ideals and texts of the French Enlightenment. By the 1800s, many writers and artists began to meet at coffee houses across Europe--a phenomenon which later came to the United States in the 1950s, revitalizing a great deal of American music, poetry, and other arts.
Choice d. As one who ran an open mic at a coffee shop for 5 years I know that it provided a haven for intellectual discussion minus the dumbing-down effects that alcohol has on conversation. Also, you really got to see who the poets and musicians really were in an environment where people were more open to experimentation, as opposed to a bar where you'd have to worry about someone chucking a beer bottle at your head if you weren't playing some cheesy cover version of the latest top 40 rock ballad.
I agree with the answer choice D. Coffeehouses were used for these types of intellectual entertainment just as pubs were used for lower forms of entertainment. I am not sure much has changed to this day!
(d)all the above
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