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The literary term used is personification. Personification occurs when any non-human thing takes on the qualities of a human or "person." This example shows the sun gazing down. The sun doesn't really have eyes like we do to gaze. It also doesn't have emotions like we do to feel "angry." So the sun is being personified here in this quotation. It gives the reader the feeling that the sun is unrelenting and harsh. It must be very hot and the sun's intensity is quite high.
In addition to personification of the sun, this type of figurative language is also anthropomorphism (attribution of human characteristics to a non-human object, such as a force of nature). It is, further, a simile (direct comparison of two objects using the word "like" or "as").
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