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A reaction between a strong acid and a strong base results to the formation of salt and water. This is typically referred to as an acid-base or neutralization reaction (so-called since the products, salt and water, have a neutral pH of 7). An example of a strong base is sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and a strong acid, hydrochloric acid (HCl). The reaction between these two species produces sodium chloride (NaCl), a salt, and water: NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O. Note that the strength of the acid or base is not related to the pH; the pH simply indicates the concentration of hydronium ions on solution. The strength of the acid/base, refers to the degree of dissociation when placed in a solution -- e.g. in water, both HCl and NaOH dissociate completely to H+, Cl-, Na+, OH-.
On the other hand, if a strong acid is reacted with a weak base, the resulting solution will have a low pH, and hence is also acidic. Meanwhile, a strong base reacts with a weak acid to form a basic solution. In the case that both reacting species are weak, the acidity/alkalinity of the resulting solution depends on the relative strengths of the reactants as an acid (or bases).
Generally, the reaction of acid and bases produces salt. Acid and bases neutralizes each other in order to form salt. The general acid-base reaction was derived from the Arrhenius definition where in a reaction of an acid and a base will form a water molecule from a proton and hydroxide ion. This is a neutralization reaction which has been put into a word equation:
`Acid + Base -> Sal t + Water`
Let me show you some classic examples:
`HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H_2O `
`NaCl -> sal t`
`H_2SO_4 + 2 KOH -> K_2SO_4 + 2 H_2O`
`K_2SO_4 -> sal t`
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