Identify the main points in a summary of the article entitled, "Technology Transfer and Modernization: What Can Philosophers of Technology Contribute?"
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Irrgang's premise is that the globalized, modern setting is an unfinished one. Pulling from Habermas, he suggests that "The unstoppable acceleration of social processes appears as the other side (drawback) of an exhausted culture that has merged into a crystal stage." Within this context of the "unfinished" but "crystal stage" of modern globalization, a predominantly Western construct has been adopted:
On the one hand, the modern age is a constantly developing planetary truth, a truth that impacts every society in the world. On the other hand, societies in third world countries have not produced this condition themselves because modernity is an external imposition. This means the modern age turns to be an unavoidable destiny for them.
While the Western construction has been pretty much embraced with global modernization, Irrgang makes it clear that the "rise of the rest" in this setting is still in flux. If not handled properly, technological advancement in the form of globalization will be seen as a "culture clash," representing resistance and disenfranchisement of those who have to be included in order for the full benefits of globalization to be embraced. At the same time, Irrgang suggests that the urban centers of these areas are "islands of modernization," depicting the need to ensure that globalization reaches all parts of a cultural experience.
This condition of flux, the remaining aspects of a narrative to be composed, is where Irrgang sees the role of philosophers as being relevant. Philosophers of technology can help to facilitate and navigate this process of ensuring that the full effects of globalization are felt throughout the areas where modernization has yet to fully penetrate. The philosopher of technology, or teacher, is essential to the process of educating, a sort of filling in the gaps process: "Modernization in the sense of enlightenment includes efforts in the pedagogical area and education of illiterates both in the home country and in colonies." Irrgang argues that the way to solve the "digital divide" which is emerging is to ensure that digital instruction and reflection is present in as many forms as possible: "Philosophical reflection is concerned to find frame conditions for an extensive theory of cultural modernization." These ideas become the basic framework for Irrgang's argument in the article.
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