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1.What the victims of the three swindlers perceive as reality is not the truth of the play.Each one thinks that he will receive wealth or power as a reward gained through little effort.The reality is that each will be left with less wealth and no more power than they had initially.
2.Fate is constantly intertwined with will, and a key theme of the book focuses on how much in life is under one's control, and how much is controlled by fate.The old king states that the world's greatest lie is that"at some point during our lives,we lose control of what's happening to us, and our lives become controlled by fate."But later events,such as Santiago and the alchemist being caught by warring tribes, demonstrate fate's hold on one's life.But,in every situation where fate does take over,the characters are capable to take themselves from the situation.For example,after being caught by the tribal chief,Santiago is able to turn himself into the wind,demonstrate his power, and is released.
3.The theme of contolled luck is prominent in this book,as the old king and the alchemist both tell Santiago about how if one really wants to fulfill their Personal Legend,the whole universe will conspire to help make it happen.Coelho refers to this as the idea of "beginner's luck".Santiago is blessed with it,when he decides to go to Africa.He manages to sell his sheep easily,and is given"a taste of success"showing appetite to fulfill one's Personal Legend.
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