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Over 17,000 Pueblo Indians from a number of tribes spread over several hundred miles were involved in the Pueblo revolt. It arose from resentment of the cruel treatment the Indians had received from the Spanish who had forced them to work on their gold and silver mines. Promises which the Spanish had made to the Indians were not kept and a previous revolt had been put down savagely with many survivors maimed as a warning to others.
The Pueblo revolt was organized by a charismatic Indian leader named Pope (literally "ripe squash".) He used a system of knotted ropes similar to the Inca Quipu to communicate with other villages and let them know how many days until the revolt. The Spanish caught wind of it, however, and Pope ordered the uprising to begin immediately. Through the fighting, the Indians killed 400 Spaniards and destroyed a number of churches. A number of priests were tortured and murdered. Ultimately, the Spanish were driven out of New Mexico, although they returned fourteen years later.
There is no evidence that the revolt gave rise to others; however it is notable as the first successful revolt in America against a European power.
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