How would a paraphrase be put into APA style format for in-text citation?
Paraphrase: The author speculated that negative exemplars within the self-concept are more confidently known than affirmative exemplary (Brintaup, 1983, p. 52).
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APA in-text citation can take many forms depending on the surrounding text and the kind of quotation, paraphrase or reference being cited. Any reference to the research or findings of another person requires the author-date APA style of in-text citation. If the idea is only referenced one time without specific quotation or if a reference to an entire book, article, or other work or material is made one time, the in-text citation is all that is needed. Otherwise, an in-text citation must be accompanied by a required complete reference to the author and work in the reference section at the end of your article/paper.
When summarizing or paraphrasing what an author has said, APA in-text citation only requires author and date reference, although also providing the page number is encouraged by the APA. APA style in-text citation of author-date for your paraphrase, with APA encouraged but optional page number reference, would be:
Brintaup (1983) speculated that negative exemplars within the self-concept are more confidently known than affirmative exemplary (p. 52).
There is speculation that negative exemplars within the self-concept are more confidently known than affirmative exemplary (Brintaup, 1983, p. 52).
APA style is the guideline for writing papers/articles in the field of behavioral and social sciences and is published by the American Psychology Association. It recommends, among other things, that scientific writing be spare and straightforward while highlighting the ideas concerned and downplaying the author's personal writing style. In APA style all the style choices, such as how and where quotations, paraphrases or references are used; punctuation related to quotations (and other punctuation); graphics with or without quoted material, be selected to move the idea presented in the research forward with the minimum of distraction from the idea and a maximum of precision in communication.
[For further information, see American Psychology Association APA Style, About APA Style and Purdue OWL APA Style In-text Citation: The Basics.]
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