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The blood glucose level at any given time represents an equilibrium between the rate at which glucose is entering and leaving the bloodstream.Although the blood glucose will vary after a heavy meal or fast or after vigorous exercise,the homeostatic mechanisms of the liver,adrenal medulla and pancreas rapidly return the level to the average 100 mg glucose per 100 ml blood.
The following factors normally raise the blood glucose level.
1.The carbohydrates in the diet.
2.glucose absorption from gut.
4.glycogenolysis in muscle
5.gluconeogenesis in liver
7.insulin destryoing enzymes.
The dynamic equilibrium means relatively constant physiological value of blood glucose, despite the fact that blood sugar is in constant motion, in terms of its inputs and outputs to and from the bloodstream. Therefore, the dynamic equilibrium can be defined, both for glucose and for other biological constants, as a movement around a point of equilibrium. Glucose level is maintained in the normal parameters due to mechanisms involved, on the one hand the supply of blood with glucose and, on the other hand, the extraction of glucose in the blood stream by tissues.
Perfusion of blood with glucose is achieved through the gut, from the digestion products, containing carbohydrate energy, and through liver, after glycogen hydrolysis. Extraction glucose from blood is achieved mainly by the muscles which are in activity, the brain and the liver.
The phenomenon of dynamic equilibrium is involving addition of any deficiency and removal of trends in excess on blood glucose concentration, through processes that are not static but in constant motion.
Both the rate at which glucose is added to plasma and the speed with which it is removed, adjusted to a large extent by hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the pancreatic insulin and the adrenal cortex. Insulin secretion decreases blood glucose, by fixing and oxidating the glucose at the level of insulin sensitive tissues.
An average dose of secreted insulin is inactivated in the body in about 60 minutes, after which blood glucose range begins to recover. Adrenaline, on the other hand, causes a prompt increase in blood glucose. The endocrine mechanisms, in certain circumstances, temporary overthrow of equilibrium, followed, in the normal course, by restoring of it.
I researched old texts and journals as well as the internet and could not find any systematic method to measure both blood flow change and blood glucose levels. However, scientists tried to determine if there was a correlation between diabetic retinopathy and increased blood flow velocity. Scientists conducted experiments on patients who had more severe retinopathy to determine if they had a marked change in their blood flow velocity. To perform the tests scientists had to use color Doppler imagining. There were specific differences noted between the test groups and therefore, they could make a positive correlation between the two.
"Conclusions. Measurements indicate a correlation between severity of diabetic retinopathy and decreased flow velocity decreased flow velocity in the CRA.
There is a correlation between the blood flow velocity and diabetes mellitus. However, I was unable to obtain enough information to adequately support the changes that may occur.
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