How are universal, regional and unique elements expressed in literature?
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Your question doesn't quite make it clear exactly what information you are soliciting, but hopefully this will help. The idea of universal elements in literature would most probably encompass theme. The theme of literature is the idea or lesson about life, love, human nature, and etc. These ideas are frequently the same despite the world differences of authors. These would be known as universal themes.
Regional features would relate to the use of customs, dialect, colloquialisms that are manifested in the region in which the story is set. The author uses this in order to add local or regional color to the literature. It would also include the addressing of local cultural or geographical features.
The idea unique is most probably with regard to the type of literature (or genre) being read. These different types of literature have unique features. For example: poetry is frequently expressed using more compact stanzas, rhythm, and meter. Prose is frequently lengthier and expressed in paragraphs. Science fiction as a genre addresses science, man's use or misuse of it, and how it often goes awry. The features exhibited in science fiction will be unique to itself, and as such won't share common traits with something like fantasy.
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