[4.3.91]According to Malcolm, what are the "graces" of a king? Does he posses them?[4.3.123-137]

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luannw | High School Teacher | (Level 2) Senior Educator

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In this very interesting scene and the conversation between Malcolm and Macduff - the only scene in the play not taking place in Scotland - Malcolm tests Macduff's loyalty.  Malcolm doesn't want someone by his side who aligns with him for personal gain.  In other words, he doesn't want a sycophant "yes" man, so to be sure that Macduff isn't like that, Malcolm tells Macduff that if he, Malcolm, becomes king, he will be a tyrant.  Malcolm says that he will not possess any of the kingly qualities ("...king-becoming graces...").  These qualities are: justice, moderation, honesty, stability, generosity, perseverance, mercy, humility, devotion, patience, courage, and bravery.  Once Macduff moans for Scotland's future, Malcolm feels sure of Macduff's loyalty to Scotland, and then tells Macduff that the only time he has ever lied was just then as he said all of that to Macduff and in reality, he has none of the vices he mentioned but has all of those kingly graces.

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