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During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as big business expanded, relations with labor worsened. Part of the reason for this was that working conditions for many Americans also got worse. In heavy industries in particular, very long hours were the norm, and many industries, particularly mining and textiles, used immigrant labor and child labor to keep wages down. Businesses opposed even minor regulations on work conditions, and fought, sometimes literally, attempts on the part of workers to unionize. The period saw several violent labor disputes, including the Homestead Strike and the "Ludlow Massacre," and also the rise of radical movements. Eugene V. Debs, a Socialist, received a substantial number of votes during his multiple runs for president. In response to these conditions, many middle-class reformers, often known as Progressives, advocated reforms such as a shorter work week, higher wages, and regulations on working conditions.
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