The civil rights movement entered a new phase in the later part of the 1960s, when “black power” became the rallying cry of black militant groups across the country. Leading this new movement was Stokely Carmichael, the fiery young leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Carmichael first popularized black power—and ignited great controversy—when he used the term in 1966 to encourage blacks to see themselves as a power bloc. At the same time that black power buoyed the hopes of black nationalists, however, it terrified many whites, who viewed it as...
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